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Raster Scan Systems !

It is the most common type of graphics monitor based on television technology. In a raster scan system, the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. When electron beam moves across each row the beam intensity is turned ON and OFF to craete a pattern of illuminated spots. Picture definition is stored in a memory called frame buffer which holds the set of intensity values, which are then retrieved from the frame buffer and pointed on the screen one row at a time as shown in figure below:

At the end of each line the beam must be turned off and redirect to the left hand side of the CRT, this is called Horizontal Retrace. At the end of each frame, the electrin beam return to top left corner of the screen to begin the next frame called Verticle Retrace as shown in figure below:


  • produce realistic images
  • also produced different colors
  • and shadows scenes.


  • low resolution
  • expensive
  • electron beam directed to whole screen

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MCA Cource
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Survey of Computer Graphics Applications Interactive & Passive Graphics Introduction to GKS Primitives Display Processors

Graphic Devices

Display Systems-Refresh CRTs Raster Scan Monitors Random Scan Monitors Grey shades Interlacing Beam Penetration & Shadow Mask Monitors Look Up Tables Plasma Panel Flat-Panel Displays LED LCD VGA SVGA Hard Copy Devices Printers Plotters Interactive Input Devices Keyboard Mouse Digitizing Tablet Light Pen Touch Panels Image Scanners Voice systems Joy Stick Track Ball

Drawing Geometry

Coordinate System Resolution Homogeneous Coordinate System scan conversion DDA Symmetrical DDA Simple DDA Bresenhams Line Algorithm Circle Drawing Algorithm Polar Coordinates Bresenhams Circle Algorithm Ellipse

2-D Transformations

Transformations Translation Rotation Scaling Mirror Reflection Shearing Zooming Panning Postioning Pointing Rubber Band Methods Dragging Tweening

Graphic Operations

Clipping Points Clipping Line Clipping Sutherland-Cohen Algorithm Midpoint Sub-Division Algorithm Polygon Clipping Sutherland Hodgman Algorithm Window & Viewport Windowing Transformation Stack Based Fill Algorithm Scan-Line Seed Fill Algorithm

3-D Graphics

3D Modelling of Objects 3D display Techniques Coordinate System 3D Transformation Matrices For Translation, Scaling & Rotation Parallel Projection Perspective Projection Hidden Surface Removal Z-Buffer Back Face Scan-Line Depth-Sorting Area Subdivision Shading-Modelling Light Intensities Gouraud Shading Phong Shading


Hypertext or Hypermedia Multimedia Applications Authoring Hardware Components Windows paint brush

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